Kinds of pepper (Spices) – Long-Green-White-Black-Bell-Cayenne-Krona Peppers
Pepper – sharp, hot and biting taste -King of all spices
The history of the Pepper family – Members of the botanical family Piperaceae were among the first cultivated plants. Black pepper (Piper nignun) and long pepper (Piper longum) are the best-known species in this family and are probably among the most recognized spices in the world. Black pepper alone accounts for about 35% of the world’s total spice trade. In addition, black pepper and long pepper have been used medicinally for centuries In recent years, extensive research data on the phytochemistry and unique pharmacological actions of these plants have also become available. Pepper is obtained from the seeds or berries of the plant Piper nigrum
Kinds of Pepper -Long- Green-White-Black-Bell-Krona Peppers
Black pepper (Piper Nigrum Linn) is a tiny perennial plant producing berry-like and aromatic pungent fruits. It is locally known as “pamienta” or “paminta” Which belongs to Family Piperaceae. Black pepper is made from dried whole berries. Dried ripe berries become black and wrinkled constituting black pepper. Black pepper yield both black and white pepper. Black pepper is made by drying ripe or unripe fruits under the sun; white pepper by soaking, treating and removing an outer skin of berry before drying.
White pepper from the same berries with the husk dried an removed.White pepper – It is generally prepared by setting (with frequently changing of water) fully ripened red berries for 7-8 days followed by removal of outer skin, washing and drying to a moisture level of 12%. White pepper is also prepared by fermentation using matured green pepper and black pepper.
Pepper is ground and used in curries to add piquancy and flavour to dishes. It is also used as a table condiment
- Long pepper : A spice similar in taste to ordinary pepper, but not as pungent
- Cayenne pepper : Dried fruits of the capsicum plant grown in the Cayenne islands. It is red and resembles the red chillies of India
- Krona pepper : Bright red pepper from Mangarian paprika
- Bell pepper : The bell pepper refers to the actual fruit of the capsicum plant. The colour can be green, red,yellow,orange and more rarely, white,purple,blue and brown, depending on when they are harvested
As a seasoning, pepper is next only to salt. Both the green and dry pepper are high in fat, protein,calcium,iron,phosphorous and carotene, Red pepper (red chillies) is used extensively in desert areas to make up for deficiency of vitamin A. Bell pepper is high in vitamin C as well. These are irritants to the stomach and should therefore, be used in moderation
Pepper Medicinal uses -Pepper One of the most common herbs in Ayurveda
Pepper species have been used in traditional medicine for intermittent fevers and to promote the secretion of bile. They are also recommended for neurological, broncho-pulmonary and gastrointestinal disorders (including dyspepsia, flatulence,constipation and hemorrhoids)
Black pepper in the treatment of fever and malaria
It is used in the treatment of refractory intermittent fevers, which are symptomatic of malarial infections and also it has been used for the treatment of epilepsy
Long pepper in respiratory diseases.
Long pepper, and to a lesser extent trikattu, have been used in the treatment of asthma and chronic bronchitis in Ayurveda and Unani medicine
Pepper’s hot taste hot feel and its thermionic effect
almost everyone recognizes that the black pepper sprinkled on their food makes it taste spice or hot. Black and long peppers stimulate the skin as well as the tongue, thus they are also useful for topical application. They have broad anti- microbial, anti- parasitic and insecticidal properties. It traditionally used as local anesthetics, but the mechanism of this analgesic (pain relieving) action has only been recently described. The biological mechanism of piperine is strongly linked to its hot taste, further validating its representation as a nutraceutical or “functional food”.